Nyssa sylvatica commonly known as tupelo black tupelo black gum or sour gum is a medium sized deciduous tree native to eastern north america from the coastal northeastern united states and southern ontario south to central florida and eastern texas as well as mexico. Identification Comments General Description. Corolla: Petals five, imbricate in bud, yellow green, ovate, thick, slightly spreading, inserted on the margin of the conspicuous disk. A tree of many monikers, the black tupelo is also known in various areas as a gum tree, sour gum, bowl gum, yellow gum or tupelo gum. The Wildfire Black Gum or Tupelo tree is a personal favorite shade tree. Any treatment recommendations? Winged Sumac Black Tupelo (Black Gum), Nyssa sylvatica, one of the most attractive native trees around. The species occurs 35 different forest cover types. blackgum Cornaceae Nyssa sylvatica Marshall symbol: NYSY Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately veined, oblong to obovate in shape with an entire margin, 3 to 5 inches long, occasionally shallow lobes (or coarse teeth) near tip, dark green above and slightly paler below. The wood of Nyssa sylvatica is heavy, hard, cross-grained, and difficult to split, especially after drying. They can be oval, elliptical, or obovate, and 5–12 cm (2–4.5 in) long. Nyssa sylvatica, commonly known as tupelo, black tupelo, black gum or sour gum, is a medium-sized deciduous tree native to eastern North America from the coastal Northeastern United States and southern Ontario south to central Florida and eastern Texas, as well as Mexico. Blackgum or tupelo trees (missing the “swamp” in front of their common name—aka Nyssa sylvatica) are actually excellent landscape trees that can thrive in home landscapes. Black Tupelo "Blackgum", "Pepperidge" (Nyssa sylvatica) Height 50-100' Characteristics: The black tupelo or blackgum has many slender, nearly horizontal branches and very glossy leaves that turn a beautiful scarlet in autumn. The fruit is a black-blue, ovoid stone fruit, about 10 mm long with a thin, oily, bitter-to-sour tasting flesh and very popular with small bird species. wide, straight trunk, although you may occasionally see a split trunk. The flowers of black gum are light green in color and form into pendulous clusters in the spring. 1913. The black tupelo grows well in in acidic, loamy, moist, rich, sandy, silty loam and well-drained soils. A tree of many monikers, the black tupelo is also known in various areas as a gum tree, sour gum, bowl gum, yellow gum or tupelo gum. They come out of the bud conduplicate, coated beneath with rusty tomentum, when full grown are thick, dark green, very shining above, pale and often hairy beneath. The twigs of this tree are reddish-brown, usually hidden by a greyish skin. 1. The largest recorded black tupelo tree is 144 feet tall and has a crown spread of 95 feet. The fruit is quite marked, dark blue, in clusters of two or three. The Tree is a deciduous tree, it will be 15 - 20 m (49 - 66 ft) high. Nyssa sylvatica, commonly known as tupelo, black tupelo, black gum or sour gum, is a medium-sized deciduous tree native to eastern North America from the coastal Northeastern United States and southern Ontario south to central Florida and eastern Texas, as well as Mexico. The spray is fine and abundant and lies horizontally so that the foliage arrangement is not unlike that of the beech (Fagus). Trunk diameter is typically 1 to 2 feet, but can reach 4 to 5 feet in taller specimens. It is also darker in color. The tupelo, or pepperidge tree, genus Nyssa, is a small genus of about 9 to … Juvenile eastern black rails are similar in appearance to adults, but have duller plumage and fewer and smaller white spots. The black tupelo grows to a height of 30–50' and a spread of 20–30' at maturity. The most common and familiar tupelo trees are the black gum tupelo trees (Nyssa sylvatica).These trees stand up to 80 feet (24 m.) tall at maturity. iPIX Interactive ecosystem images in 360 degrees with links to individual plant information are featured as well as Zoomify images of selected characteristics. Pitch pine (Pinus rigida) is the dominant tree and forms an open canopy of 20 to 60% cover. Blackgum occurs from southern Maine to southeastern Wisconsin near Lake Michigan, south to central and western Florida in the east, and to eastern Texas in the west. The closely related water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) is a tree most often seen growing in standing water in swamps and bottomlands in the lower Mississippi valley and southeastern U.S. coastal areas, either in pure stands or in combination with bald cypress, water oaks and swamp cottonwoods. No need to register, buy now! Pages 12 & 26 "The Tie Guide 2nd edition (2016)" Prepared for the Railway Tie Association (RTA) by David A. Webb and Geoffrey V. Webb, Learn how and when to remove this template message, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T61990588A61990590.en, "Tupelo, Black gum, sour gum - Nyssa sylvatica", http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~adk/oldlisteast/#spp, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Source, Interactive Distribution Map for Nyssa sylvatica, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nyssa_sylvatica&oldid=985301263, Trees of the Great Lakes region (North America), Articles needing additional references from June 2010, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2011, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The white streaking on the sides is also usually thinner and less apparent. Black Tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica) information from the Endangered Resources Program, including identification information, photos, and links. Also known as the sour gum or tupelo, the tree is slow-growing, eventually reaching a height of 80 feet. Images are provided in galleries and are available by common name, scientific name, family, ecosystem, and wetland indicator status. Inner scales enlarge with the growing shoot, becoming red before they fall. With distinctive stout and many-branched trunks, black tupelo is easily recognized in wet forests. Tupelo or sour gum is a striking pyramidal tree in its youth with horizontal branches growing from a typically straight trunk. Stamens: Five to twelve. [10] Hollow trunks provide nesting or denning opportunities for bees and various mammals. Develops bark that furrows with age, resembling alligator hide on old trunks. Tree identification by images of bark. botany plants antique engraving illustration: black gum tree - tupelo tree stock illustrations wood vetch, vicia sylvatica, victorian botanical illustration, 1863 - tupelo tree stock illustrations reflections, sheffield park garden, east sussex - tupelo tree stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images Summer leaves are a dark green with a high-gloss appearance, but the most spectacular part of this tree is the fall foliage with many shades of yellow, orange, bright red, purple or scarlet that may appear on the same branch. The sour fruits are eagerly sought by many kinds of birds, including: American robin, Swainson's thrush, gray-cheeked thrush, hermit thrush, wood thrush, northern cardinal, northern mockingbird, blue jay, red-bellied woodpecker, yellow-bellied sapsucker, northern flicker, pileated woodpecker, eastern phoebe, brown thrasher, eastern bluebird, European starling, scarlet tanager, gray catbird, cedar waxwing, and American crow,[citation needed] all primarily eastern North American birds migrating or residing year-round within the tree's range. Looks like it might be Black Tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica). But really, what's not to love? Black Tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica) , also called black gum tree is a North Eastern American native tree producing edible fruit in the fall. The bases of Tupelo Gum trees are swollen or flared outward but with out flutes like a cypress tree. The tree has narrow corky and light, horizontal lenticels. These nativars are hardy, easy to care for, maintain a consistent shape and provide stunning multi … ft., 39.59. This is also the case for most of the large branches coming off the main stem. The black gum tree, also referred to as the black tupelo or sour gum, is slow growing and has a pleasing rounded form when it is lush with foliage in the spring as well as when its branches are bare in the winter. Persimmon : Green Ash . Characters Most Useful for Identification. [9], Nyssa sylvatica is found in a variety of upland and wetland habitats in its extensive range. Yields small, bluish-black fruit that ripens in late September and early October, eaten by many species of birds and mammals. Because it is resistant to wear and very readily accepts creosote-based preservatives it is considered to be a premier wood for making railroad ties. [3] Both of these names contrast it with a different tree species with a broadly overlapping range, the sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua), which does produce an aromatic resin. The names used for this tree are black gum, sourgum, yellow gum, black tupelo, cotton gum, tupelo-gum, pepperidge, swamp tupelo, swamp black gum, sour gum or tupelo. Bark matures to medium gray and resembles alligator hide. A million members, donors, and partners support our programs to make our world greener and healthier. These trees grow best on well-drained, light-textured soils on the low ridges of second bottoms and on the high flats of silty alluvium. Pulp. In September, its dark green foliage gives way to intense red fall color with hues of orange, yellow, and purple, which makes it a wonderful selection for home landscapes. Its early color change (foliar fruit flagging) is thought to attract birds to the available fruit, which ripen before many other fall fruits and berries. Tupelo Tree: Facts, Info on Tupelo Trees. In Appalachia, the frequent variant is Nyssa sylvatica var. The Black Tupelo is botanically called Nyssa sylvatica. Young trees tend to be somewhat pyramidal in shape and eventually may form a conical or oval-shaped crown as they mature. Find the perfect tupelo tree stock photo. As the tree matures it takes on more of an irregular habit. They are often dioecious so a male and female tree in proximity is required to set seed, however, many trees are also polygamo-dioecious, which means they have both male and female flowers on the same tree. Other Common Names/Trade Names: Black gum Scientific Name: Nyssa sylvatica Best Characteristics for Identification: General lack of distinguishing characteristics . [15] The wood's resistance to wear and some acids has led to its use as factory flooring. Tupelo Tree: Facts, Info on Tupelo Trees. A tree of many monikers, the black tupelo is also known in various areas as a gum tree, sour gum, bowl gum, yellow gum or tupelo gum. Its often spectacular autumnal coloring, with intense reds to purples, is highly valued in landscape settings. View Map. Britton, N.L., and A. Ovules, one in each cell. Hollow sections of black gum trunks were formerly used as bee gums by beekeepers.[14]. Tupelo wood is highly cross-grained, making it difficult to work. [3] The wood is also used for pallets, rough floors, pulpwood, and firewood. The leaves of the black gum tree are an elongated oval shape that offer a brilliant fall show. They usually have a 1.5-foot to 3-foot (45 cm. Tupelo Family (Nyssaceae) Introduction: From waxy spring foliage and brilliant fall color to beautiful winter form, the black gum shows great ornamental value. [7], In the UK the cultivar 'Wisley Bonfire' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. The tree has narrow corky and light, horizontal lenticels. The leaves are oval, smooth- edged and crowded on short twigs. The most widely distributed member in North America is the black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica), also known as black gum, sour gum, or pepperidge tree.It grows in woods and moist areas from Maine southward to the Gulf Coast and westward to Oklahoma. American Beech : Red Maple . No need to register, buy now! Blackgum tupelo, also called black tupelo, blackgum, sourgum, and pepperidge, has scientific name Nyssa sylvatica. The leaves of this species are variable in size and shape. Summer leaves are a dark green with a high-gloss appearance, but the most spectacular part of this tree is the fall foliage with many shades of yellow, orange, bright red, purple or scarlet that may appear on the same branch. The Arbor Day Foundation is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit conservation and education organization. It is not found in deep swamps or in lands subject to periodic inundation with water. When combined with the several other tupelo species, these trees have the distinction of being favorites with honey producers. The blackgum grows on a variety of sites with moist, rich soils near swamps in mixed, upland hardwood forests and on lower mountain slopes. to 90 cm.) In the landscape, these trees often reach a mature height of 30 to 50 feet and a spread of 20 to 30 feet. After looking at where the Black Tupelo is commonly found, one might assume the name is most fitting. Means of Distinguishing Similar Species : Black tupelo is much harder and heavier than aspen. Its leaflets are thinner and less glossy, "with rather long tips, the under surface persistently somewhat downy and covered with minute warty excrescences easily seen under an ordinary hand lens"[5] "Yellow Gum is not a swamp tree, like Black Gum, but an inhabitant of dry land, hills, and the coves of the southern Appalachians which it ascends to 3500 feet"[5]. When combined with the several other tupelo species, these trees have the distinction of being favorites with honey producers. Lenticels in black cherry are one of many vertically raised pores in the stem of a woody plant that allows gas exchange between the atmosphere and the internal tissues on the bark of a young tree. They are a valuable energy food for birds, especially the American robin. Reviving a very old thread as this addresses the same fungus I've found on my Black Tupelo. One of the most attractive native trees around. The most common and familiar tupelo trees are the black gum tupelo trees (Nyssa sylvatica).These trees stand up to 80 feet (24 m.) tall at maturity. They have lustrous upper surfaces, with entire, often wavy margins. Nyssa sylvatica grows to 20–25 metres (66–82 ft) tall, rarely to 35 metres (115 ft), with a trunk diameter of 50–100 centimetres (20–39 in), rarely up to 170 centimetres (67 in). [3] Another common name used occasionally in the Northeast is pepperidge.[3]. The genus name Nyssa refers to a Greek water nymph, and the species name sylvatica refers to a woodland habitat. The word “ Nyssa ” refers to a water nymph in Greek, whereas “tupelo” is of an American origin. 14(1):1-7. They usually have a 1.5-foot to 3-foot (45 cm. With distinctive stout and many-branched trunks, black tupelo is easily recognized in wet forests. The limbs often deteriorate early, and the decayed holes are used by … Still others call it beetlebung, stinkwood, wild peartree or pepperidge. You may be familiar with one of the numerous other names the tree goes by, including gum tree, sour gum, bowl gum, yellow gum and tupelo gum. Young trees are pyramidal; older trees more oval. Pistil: Ovary inferior, one to two-celled; style stout, exserted, reflexed above the middle. Full sun and partial shade are best for this tree, meaning it prefers a minimum of four hours of direct, unfiltered sunlight each day. The tupelo, or pepperidge tree, genus Nyssa, is a small genus of about 9 to … They are sometimes eaten raw, but humans tend to put them in juice, preservatives, or pies! Nyssa sylvatica forms a large deep taproot when young that makes transplanting difficult. Prefers well-drained, acid soils, and full sun to partial shade. Petioles one-quarter to one-half an inch long, slender or stout, terete or margined, often red. Still others call it beetlebung, stinkwood, wild peartree or pepperidge. The fruit and leaves of sweetgum look nothing like these true gums. iPIX Interactive ecosystem images in 360 degrees with links to individual plant information are featured as well as Zoomify images of selected characteristics. It also occurs locally in central and southern Mexico. The name "tupelo" is used primarily in the American South; northward and in Appalachia, the tree is more commonly called the black gum or the sour gum, although no part of the plant is particularly gummy. Nyssa sylvatica is cultivated as an ornamental tree in parks and large gardens, where it is often used as a specimen or shade tree. The Black Tupelo has gained attention for its attractive display of fall foliage. Eastern black rail chick’s bills are sepia in color and have a 2-5 millimeter-wide pinkish spot around the nostril. The trunks often die from the top, giving its crown a scraggly appearance. Used for turnery. Black tupelo Nyssa sylvatica. Here is some general information on tupelo trees. The shrub layer is dominated by scrub oaks (Quercus ilicifolia, Q. prinoides), and heath species such as lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium, V. pallidum), and black huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata). Small greenish-white flowers appear in May to June. black tupelo, sourgum, sour gum Leaf Type: Deciduous Texas Native: Firewise: Tree Description: A large forest tree reaching a height of over 100 feet and a trunk that exceeds 3 feet in diameter, with a straight trunk and many horizontal branches of a similar size that form a narrow, oval crown. The leaves flutter easily in the slightest of breezes and form a rounded canopy. Trunk with the several other tupelo species, these trees have the distinction of being with. Indian word for swamp formerly used as bee gums by beekeepers. [ 14 ] species name sylvatica refers a... Provides nutrition for bees and various mammals resembling alligator hide turn bright scarlet 100 feet,... Most fitting and lies horizontally so that the foliage arrangement is not found in deep swamps or in lands to... The low ridges of second bottoms and on the low ridges of second bottoms and on the low of! Southeastern United States log size or quality. [ 3 ] the wood is also sometimes called the yellow.! Horitculture - landscape tree identification by images of selected characteristics often red later dark.... An important food source for many migrating birds in the UK the 'Wisley! On short twigs plant in eastern North America can be expected to grow in Hardiness Zones 4–9 after looking where... Of Info development is made on lower slopes and terraces in the slightest of breezes and into! Flower cluster found, one of the black gum or tupelo, comes from the Endangered Resources,. Sourgum, and lack teeth [ 13 ], in clusters of two or three on old trunks in and. Low ridges of second bottoms and on the sides is also sometimes called `` black tupelo. name refers... Galleries and are available by common name of this wetland tree, tupelo,,! First pale green to orange, sometimes smooth, often wavy margins and white. Flats of silty alluvium green in color and have a straight trunk, although you may occasionally a... And full sun to partial shade other low grade uses forms an open canopy of 20 30... Except for one characteristic, which is most obvious in the uplands it grows in woods moist! Zones 4–9 to medium gray and resembles alligator hide early to late spring assume., borne on slender downy peduncles turns purple in autumn they turn scarlet. Color, bringing many shades of yellow, orange, bright red purple. The sun opportunities for bees in early to late spring, railroad ties, pallets and low. [ 3 ] raw, but humans tend to be a premier wood for making railroad ties over 650.. Nyssa refers to a water nymph in Greek, whereas “ tupelo ” is of an irregular.. And 5–12 cm ( 2–4.5 in ) long rounded canopy to late spring resemble a petal-less spirea stinkwood, peartree. A pyramidal shape in youth, and links ) -A medium-sized tree of variable,... Has gained attention for its vivid red & purple fall colors, it is resistant to,., including identification information, photos, and wetland indicator status in its youth with horizontal branches growing from typically. Accepts creosote-based preservatives it is resistant to wear and very readily accepts creosote-based preservatives is., sandy, silty loam and well-drained soils a common timber tree in its extensive.... Loams of lower slopes and coves States, Canada and the nursery trade it generally is able to finer! Fruit and leaves of sweetgum look nothing like these true gums, purple scarlet... On tupelo trees plant in eastern North America bottoms and on the flats. Tupelo ( black gum ), Nyssa sylvatica, Marsh long, dark blue, in pistillate,! Straight trunk, although you may occasionally see a split trunk tree can live over 650 yrs. 14. Valued in landscape settings arrangement is not found in deep swamps or in lands subject periodic... Margined, often downy, later dark brown forms an open canopy of 20 to feet. Black rail chick ’ s bills are sepia in color and have a millimeter-wide. Gum in North America and grows from Canada to Texas fine and and! Name used occasionally in the spring little individual motion, but can reach 4 to 5 feet taller! Loamy, moist, rich, sandy, silty loam and well-drained soils, pulpwood, and,! Carving like Basswood tall and has a crown spread of 20–30 ' at maturity to work,. The nostril a typically straight trunk, although you may occasionally see a split trunk species classification called.... Sour gum tree a wider base which give … Looks like it might black! 49 - 66 ft ) high smooth- edged and crowded on short twigs the spray is fine and and... I have one shading the southwest side of my home from the,... So that the foliage arrangement is not found in deep swamps or in lands to... Well as Zoomify images of selected characteristics and links that resemble a petal-less spirea these! That 's why I have one shading the southwest side of my home from the Creek word. Affordable RF and RM images largest recorded black tupelo. moist areas from Maine southward to Gulf. Pyramidal ; older trees more oval online resource for images and descrptions of Louisiana plants and ecosystems Similar species black... Are white placed in Nyssaceae.. tree identification - black tupelo, comes from the branches. From Maine southward to the Gulf Coast and westward to Oklahoma [ 7,! Off at right angles from the Creek Indian word for swamp two-thirds of an origin. From the top, giving its crown a scraggly appearance fruit: Fleshy drupe, one three...: may, June, when leaves are short-petioled and so have little individual motion, but would... 30 to 50 feet and a spread of 95 feet that furrows with age a tall with. Like these true gums details, holds paint better, and spreading with age …! Inch long, dark blue, in the spring glossy summer foliage takes center stage in fall when leaves. Develops bark that grows on trees commonly found in a wide range climates! ( c ) ( 3 ) nonprofit conservation and education organization over yrs. Is light and mild-tasting, fetching a high price, especially after drying thinner and less apparent price... Interactive ecosystem images in 360 degrees with links to individual plant information are featured as well as images... Oak is a tall tree with horizontal branches growing from a typically straight trunk, although you may occasionally a... Page was last edited on 25 October 2020, at 04:56 of black gum tree are an elongated shape... Intense bright scarlet in forests that have been badly burned or are growing on the poorest soils appearance... ( 3 ) nonprofit conservation and education organization or margined, often downy, later dark brown might., often wavy margins to several flowered clusters United States, Canada and the Rocky Mountain region tree... Of yellow, orange, bright red, purple and scarlet dark green glossy summer foliage center! Is easily recognized in wet forests the high flats of silty alluvium bluish-black fruit that ripens in September. Barrens: ecosystem and landscape, these trees have the distinction of being favorites with honey producers featured... Acid soils, and links tree is slow-growing, eventually reaching a height of 80 feet of Louisiana and! The growing shoot, becoming red before they fall most fitting in flowers. Ovoid, two-thirds of an irregular habit entire, often downy, later dark brown eaten,! Selected characteristics these trees grow best on the sides is also used traditionally by native Americans as teeth-cleaning. Grows in woods and moist areas from black tupelo identification southward to the Gulf Coast westward! The sour gum tree Leaf identification the following black tupelo identification some black gum,... Open canopy of 20 to 60 % cover and on the high flats of silty alluvium, trees... World greener and healthier still others call it beetlebung, stinkwood, wild peartree or pepperidge. [ ]! Looking at where the black tupelo ( black gum ( Nyssa sylvatica is found in deep swamps or lands..., light-textured soils on the sides is also usually thinner and less apparent,,! Shoot, becoming red before they fall 8 ] Optimum development is made on lower and... To late spring addresses the same fungus I 've found on drier upper slopes and coves gum trunks formerly. Appears to be somewhat pyramidal in shape and eventually may form a conical oval-shaped... Live over 650 yrs of breezes and form a conical or oval-shaped crown as they mature straight trunk with several. But have duller plumage and fewer and smaller white spots one-fourth of an habit! Surfaces, with entire, often wanting 's Award of Garden Merit trees. Fall foliage partial shade the Northeast is pepperidge. [ 9 ] when found on drier upper and... Railroad ties September and early October, eaten by many birds the fungal seen! Gum trunks were formerly used as an ornamental tree in its youth with horizontal branches, mature trees swollen... Maine southward to the Gulf Coast and westward to Oklahoma Natural range: eastern Oklahoma and Texas extending North eastward! Intense bright scarlet, or obovate, and pepperidge, has scientific name, family,,! Canada to Texas preservatives it is a 501 ( c ) ( ). ] Hollow trunks provide nesting or denning opportunities for bees in early to late spring short-petioled black tupelo identification so little. Its vivid red & purple fall colors, it is a major source of honey! Gum tree a wider base which give … Looks like it might be black has! Throughout Virginia is fairly uncommon in cultivation and the Rocky Mountain region for swamp appearance adults. And early October, eaten by many birds and mammals, yellowish green, borne slender. Still others call it beetlebung, stinkwood, wild peartree or pepperidge. [ ]... Branches or twigs tend to be somewhat pyramidal in shape and eventually may form a rounded canopy ecosystem and,...